Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising gases for cleaning the environment and as a fuel for light and heavy vehicles. It can be obtained in various ways from the chemical point of view, but the best known is the hydrolysis of water, this is the separation of hydrogen and oxygen that make up water by means of an electric current. In the image, each step represents a different energy level, which depends on the type and number of chemical bonds, the more bonds a molecule has, the more energy. The molecules of water (H2O) and that of carbon dioxide (CO2) must be considered as terminal molecules with very little energy, in our energy ladder they would be at ground level.
When electrical energy is applied, the water molecule is divided into its essential components: hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), remaining in a higher energetic step, the first step.
In the case of the CO2 molecule, it is adsorbed by plants and through a complex process, photosynthesis, it is transformed into components with higher carbon numbers or organic molecules. The biogas production process breaks down these more complex molecules into a bacterial waste product known as methane (CH4).
This gas is 4 steps higher than hydrogen on the energy ladder. Therefore, when burned and transformed into CO2, it produces 4 times more energy than hydrogen.
Hydrogen represents an ecological and sustainable alternative if it is obtained from clean energy.
Perhaps the biggest problem with hydrogen is its storage and low energy density, which limits its use to developed countries with excellent roads and connectivity.
Who has traveled to India, Nigeria, Angola, Ecuador or some other underdeveloped country where there are no passable roads or they are of low quality, with a poverty of the population of 42% as occurs in Argentina, it is simply a utopia to think about implementing these projects due to its high cost.
Hydrogen could be produced but it would be another raw material for export, it would not produce the expected local benefit.
Chile is betting on hydrogen energy, it is a prominent country in South America, however, we may be 30 years or more away from having massive vehicles that operate with hydrogen.
This gas will be produced in the Atacama desert and in the extreme south and will be exported.